General information

The information on these pages should be used to research health risks and to inform the pre-travel consultation. For advice regarding safety and security please check the UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) website.

Travellers should ideally arrange an appointment with their health professional at least four to six weeks before travel. However, even if time is short, an appointment is still worthwhile. This appointment provides an opportunity to assess health risks taking into account a number of factors including destination, medical history, and planned activities. For those with pre-existing health problems, an earlier appointment is recommended.

While most travellers have a healthy and safe trip, there are some risks that are relevant to travellers regardless of destination. These may for example include road traffic and other accidents, diseases transmitted by insects or ticks, diseases transmitted by contaminated food and water, sexually transmitted infections, or health issues related to the heat or cold.

All travellers should ensure they have adequate travel health insurance. If visiting European Economic Area (EEA) countries carry an European health insurance card (EHIC) as this will allow access to state-provided healthcare in EEA countries, at a reduced cost, or sometimes for free. The EHIC, however, is not an alternative to travel insurance.

A list of useful resources including advice on how to reduce the risk of certain health problems is available below.

Resources

Vaccine recommendations

Details of vaccination recommendations and requirements are provided below.

All Travellers

Travellers should be up to date with routine vaccination courses and boosters as recommended in the UK. These vaccinations include for example measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine and diphtheria-tetanus-polio vaccine.

Those who may be at increased risk of an infectious disease due to their work, lifestyle choice, or certain underlying health problems should be up to date with additional recommended vaccines. See the individual chapters of the ‘Green Book’ Immunisation against infectious disease for further details.

Certificate Requirements

There are no certificate requirements under International Health Regulations.

Most Travellers

The vaccines in this section are recommended for most travellers visiting this country. Information on these vaccines can be found by clicking on the blue arrow. Vaccines are listed alphabetically.

Tetanus

Tetanus is caused by a toxin released from Clostridium tetani and occurs worldwide.  Tetanus bacteria are present in soil and manure and may be introduced through open wounds such as a puncture wound, burn or scratch.

Prevention
Travellers should thoroughly clean all wounds and seek appropriate medical attention.

Tetanus vaccination
  • Travellers should have completed a primary vaccination course according to the UK schedule.
  • If travelling to a country where medical facilities may be limited, a booster dose of a tetanus-containing vaccine is recommended if the last dose was more than ten years ago even if five doses of vaccine have been given previously.

Country specific information on medical facilities may be found in the ‘health’ section of the FCO foreign travel advice website.

 Tetanus in brief

Some Travellers

The vaccines in this section are recommended for some travellers visiting this country. Information on when these vaccines should be considered can be found by clicking on the arrow. Vaccines are listed alphabetically.

Rabies (Bat Lyssavirus)

Although rare, bat lyssaviruses (bat rabies) can be transmitted to humans or other animals following contact with the saliva of an infected bat most often by a bite. The disease can also be transmitted if the saliva of an infected bat gets into open wounds or mucous membranes (such as on the eye, nose or mouth). Bat lyssaviruses can cause disease in humans that is indistinguishable from rabies.

Symptoms can take some time to develop, but when they do the condition is almost always fatal.

The risk to most travellers is low. However, it is increased for certain occupations for example bat handlers and veterinarians, or certain activities such as caving.

Bat Lyssavirus in Denmark

Rabies has not been reported in domestic or wild animals in this country; therefore most travellers are considered to be at low risk. However, bats may carry bat lyssavirus (bat rabies).

Prevention
  • Travellers should avoid contact with bats. Bites from bats are frequently unrecognised. Rabies-like disease caused by bat lyssaviruses is preventable with prompt post-exposure rabies treatment.
  • Following a possible exposure, wounds should be thoroughly cleansed and an urgent local medical assessment sought, even if the wound appears trivial. Although rabies has not been reported in other animals in this country, it is sensible to seek prompt medical advice if bitten or scratched. It is possible, although very rare for bats to pass rabies like viruses to other animals including pets.
  • Post-exposure treatment and advice should be in accordance with national guidelines.

 

Rabies vaccination

  • Pre-exposure rabies vaccinations are recommended for those who are at increased risk due to their work (e.g. laboratory staff working with the virus and those working with bats).
  • Pre exposure vaccines could be considered for those whose activities put them at increased risk of exposure to bats.

A full course of pre-exposure vaccines simplifies and shortens the course of post-exposure treatment and removes the need for rabies immunoglobulin which is in short supply world-wide.

 Rabies in brief

Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE)

Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a viral infection transmitted by the bite of infected ticks. Less commonly, cases of TBE occur following ingestion of unpasteurised milk products.

Travellers are at increased risk of exposure during outdoor activities in areas of vegetation (gardens, parks, meadows, forest fringes and glades). Ticks are usually most active between early spring and late autumn.

Tick-borne encephalitis in Denmark

There is a risk of TBE in some areas of this country. The main affected areas are the Baltic island of Bornholm and Tokkekøb Hegn, a forest area north of Copenhagen. The transmission season varies, however, ticks are most active during early spring to late autumn.

Prevention
  • All travellers should avoid tick bites during outdoor activities.
  • Travellers should check their skin regularly for ticks and remove them as soon as possible with a recommended technique.
  • Travellers should not eat or drink unpasteurised milk products.
Tick-borne encephalitis vaccination

Vaccination is recommended for those visiting affected areas whose activities put them at increased risk including:

  • Those who will be going to live in TBE risk areas
  • Those working in forestry, woodcutting, farming and the military
  • Travellers to forested areas, e.g. campers, hikers, hunters and individuals who undertake fieldwork
  • Laboratory workers who may be exposed to TBE

Tick-borne encephalitis in brief

Important News

03 May 2017

Changes to the Country Information pages: Tick-borne encephalitis

NaTHNaC has reviewed and updated the tick-borne encephalitis country specific information in order to provide up-to-date recommendations for traveller Read more

06 Apr 2017

European cluster of cases of hepatitis A

Outbreaks of hepatitis A have been reported in Europe mostly affecting men who have sex with men (MSM) Read more

01 Dec 2016

Avian influenza: worldwide update

An update on human cases of avian influenza viruses worldwide Read more

Outbreaks

14 Dec 2016 View Countries + Austria
Croatia
Denmark
Finland
France
Germany
Hungary
Netherlands
Poland
Romania
Russia
Serbia
Sweden
Switzerland

As 8 December 2016, outbreaks have been reported from 30 October to 6 December in 14 countries in the European region: Austria, Croatia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Switzerland, Sweden. In 2016, outbreaks in poultry holdings have been reported in eight countries: Austria, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Poland, Sweden. Six European countries were affected by outbreaks in the 2014/15 winter: Germany, Italy, Hungary, Netherlands, Sweden, and the UK.

Animal

Air-Borne

New Post

Verified

Eurosurveillance - Read more

02 Dec 2016 View Countries + Austria
Belgium
Czech Republic
Denmark
France
Germany
Ireland
Italy
Lithuania
Netherlands
Norway
Portugal
Slovenia
Spain
Sweden

As of 25 November 2016, a range of Dutch cured fish products exported to 16 European countries have been recalled due to the risk of food poisoning with Clostridium botulinum Type E

Human

Food and water-borne

New Post

Verified

European Commission - Read more

22 Nov 2016 Denmark

As of 16 November 2016, the number of cases reported January to October 2016 was the highest in 15 years. The incidence was highest among infants and children, but even the incidence among 40+ year olds has doubled in the last seven years.

Human

Close association

New Post

Verified

State - Read more

28 Oct 2016 Denmark

As of 28 October 2016, a total of five probable cases have been reported from May to October 2016. The infection is part of a multi-country outbreak linked to Polish chicken eggs. Consumers are reminded to wash their hands after handling raw eggs and to cook eggs before eating.

Human

Food and water-borne

New Post

Verified

EFSA - Read more