General information

The information on these pages should be used to research health risks and to inform the pre-travel consultation. For advice regarding safety and security please check the UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) website.

Travellers should ideally arrange an appointment with their health professional at least four to six weeks before travel. However, even if time is short, an appointment is still worthwhile. This appointment provides an opportunity to assess health risks taking into account a number of factors including destination, medical history, and planned activities. For those with pre-existing health problems, an earlier appointment is recommended.

All travellers should ensure they have adequate travel health insurance.

A list of useful resources including advice on how to reduce the risk of certain health problems is available below.

Resources

Vaccine recommendations

Details of vaccination recommendations and requirements are provided below.

All Travellers

Travellers should be up to date with routine vaccination courses and boosters as recommended in the UK. These vaccinations include for example measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine and diphtheria-tetanus-polio vaccine.

Country specific diphtheria recommendations are not provided here. Diphtheria tetanus and polio are combined in a single vaccine in the UK. Therefore, when a tetanus booster is recommended for travellers, diphtheria vaccine is also given. Should there be an outbreak of diphtheria in a country, diphtheria vaccination guidance will be provided.

Those who may be at increased risk of an infectious disease due to their work, lifestyle choice, or certain underlying health problems should be up to date with additional recommended vaccines. See the individual chapters of the ‘Green Book’ Immunisation against infectious disease for further details.

Certificate Requirements

Please read the information below carefully, as certificate requirements may be relevant to certain travellers only. For travellers further details, if required, should be sought from their healthcare professional.

  • Travellers who intend to visit Nigeria for four weeks or more should be aware that proof of vaccination [an International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis (ICVP)] against poliomyelitis, given four weeks to 12 months before departure may be required on exit. Failure to produce this documentation may result in vaccination at the point of departure, most likely with oral polio vaccine. See ‘Most Travellers‘ section below for further details.
  • There is a risk of yellow fever transmission throughout Nigeria (see ‘Most Travellers’ section below).
  • Under International Health Regulations (2005), a yellow fever vaccination certificate is required for all travellers aged 9 months or over. 
  • According to World Health Organization (WHO), from 11 July 2016 (for all countries), the yellow fever certificate will be valid for the duration of the life of the person vaccinated. As a consequence, a valid certificate, presented by arriving travellers, cannot be rejected on the grounds that more than ten years have passed since the date vaccination became effective as stated on the certificate; and that boosters or revaccination cannot be required.
    See WHO Q&A.

Most Travellers

The vaccines in this section are recommended for most travellers visiting this country. Information on these vaccines can be found by clicking on the blue arrow. Vaccines are listed alphabetically.

Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A is a viral infection transmitted through contaminated food and water or by direct contact with an infectious person. Symptoms are often mild or absent in young children, but the disease becomes more serious with advancing age. Recovery can vary from weeks to months. Following hepatitis A illness immunity is lifelong.

Those at increased risk include travellers visiting friends and relatives, long-stay travellers, and those visiting areas of poor sanitation.

Prevention

All travellers should take care with personal, food and water hygiene.

Hepatitis A vaccination

As hepatitis A vaccine is well tolerated and affords long-lasting protection, it is recommended for all previously unvaccinated travellers.

Hepatitis A in brief

Polio

Polio is caused by one of three types of polio virus and is transmitted by contaminated food and water. Previous infection with one type of polio virus does not protect against other types of the virus.

Those at increased risk include travellers visiting friends and relatives, those in direct contact with an infected person, long-stay travellers, and those visiting areas of poor sanitation.

Polio in Nigeria

This country is infected with wild type polio virus (WPV1) and circulating vaccine derived polio virus (CVDP2) with the potential risk of international spread. 

Prevention

All travellers should take care with personal and food and water hygiene.

Polio vaccination
  • All travellers should have completed a polio vaccination course according to the UK schedule (vaccines used in the UK schedule contain inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) and provide protection against types 1,2 and 3 polioviruses; bivalent oral polio vaccine (bOPV) used in schedules of some other countries, does not protect the individual against type 2 poliovirus).
  • A booster dose of an IPV-containing vaccine is recommended for those who have not received a dose within the previous 10 years.

The following additional advice should also be followed until further notice:
  • For those who are up to date with the UK vaccination schedule appropriate for their age, or who have completed a polio vaccination course according to the UK schedule, including a dose within the previous 10 years, an additional dose of polio vaccine is only recommended in some circumstances [see bullet points below].
  • Travellers visiting Nigeria for 4 weeks or more should be aware that proof of polio vaccination [recorded on an International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis (ICVP)] given 4 weeks to 12 months before departure from Nigeria, may be required on exit. Failure to produce an ICVP may result in vaccination on departure, most likely with oral polio vaccine. For most individuals, this should cause no problems but those with weakened immune systems (see below) should NOT receive oral polio vaccine.
  • Immunosuppressed individuals and their household contacts, pregnant women, or others for whom oral polio vaccine is contra-indicated, who plan to travel to Nigeria for 4 weeks or more are advised to receive inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) within 1 year before planned departure from Nigeria, and to ensure this is recorded on an ICVP.
  • Travellers to settings with extremely poor hygiene (e.g. refugee camps), or likely to be in close proximity with cases (e.g. healthcare workers), and/or visiting for 6 months or more, are advised to have a booster dose of polio-containing vaccine if they had not received vaccination in the past 12 months.
  • Further information from WHO on the Public Health Emergency of International Concern.
  • Further information from the WHO about the cessation of OPV and replacement with IPV 2016.
  • Supply of International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis (polio vaccination).

Polio in brief

Tetanus

Tetanus is caused by a toxin released from Clostridium tetani and occurs worldwide. Tetanus bacteria are present in soil and manure and may be introduced through open wounds such as a puncture wound, burn or scratch.

Prevention

Travellers should thoroughly clean all wounds and seek appropriate medical attention.

Tetanus vaccination
  • Travellers should have completed a primary vaccination course according to the UK schedule.
  • If travelling to a country where medical facilities may be limited, a booster dose of a tetanus-containing vaccine is recommended if the last dose was more than ten years ago even if five doses of vaccine have been given previously.

Country specific information on medical facilities may be found in the ‘health’ section of the FCO foreign travel advice website.

Tetanus in brief

Typhoid

Typhoid is a bacterial infection transmitted through contaminated food and water. Previous typhoid illness may only partially protect against re-infection.

Vaccination is recommended for most travellers, particularly travellers visiting friends and relatives, those in contact with an infected person, young children, frequent or long-stay travellers visiting areas where sanitation and food hygiene are likely to be poor, and laboratory personnel who may handle the bacteria for their work.

Prevention

All travellers should take care with personal, food and water hygiene.

Typhoid vaccination
  • Oral and injectable typhoid vaccinations are available.

Typhoid in brief

Yellow Fever

Yellow fever is a viral infection transmitted by mosquitoes which predominantly feed between dawn and dusk, but may also bite at night, especially in the jungle environment. Symptoms may be absent or mild, but in severe cases, it can cause internal bleeding, organ failure and death

Yellow fever in Nigeria

There is a risk of yellow fever transmission throughout this country (see below).

Prevention

All travellers should avoid mosquito bites particularly between dawn and dusk.

 Yellow fever vaccination
  • Vaccination is recommended for travellers aged 9 months and older.
  • See vaccine recommendation map below.

The yellow fever vaccine is not suitable for all travellers, there are specific undesirable effects associated with it. This vaccine is only available at registered yellow fever vaccination centres. Health professionals should carefully assess the risks and benefits of the vaccine, and seek specialist advice if necessary.

Yellow fever in brief

Yellow fever vaccine recommendations in Africa

Map provided by the Travelers’ Health Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Current as of August 2018. This map, which aligns with recommendations also published by the World Health Organization (WHO), is an updated version of the 2010 map created by the Informal WHO Working Group on the Geographic Risk of Yellow Fever.

2. Yellow fever (YF) vaccination is generally not recommended in areas where there is low potential for YF virus exposure. However, vaccination might be considered for a small subset of travelers to these areas who are at increased risk for exposure to YF virus because of prolonged travel, heavy exposure to mosquitoes, or inability to avoid mosquito bites. Consideration for vaccination of any traveler must take into account the traveler’s risk of being infected with YF virus, country entry requirements, and individual risk factors for serious vaccine-associated adverse events (e.g. age, immune status).

Some Travellers

The vaccines in this section are recommended for some travellers visiting this country. Information on when these vaccines should be considered can be found by clicking on the arrow. Vaccines are listed alphabetically.

Cholera

Cholera is a bacterial infection transmitted by contaminated food and water. Cholera can cause severe watery diarrhoea although mild infections are common. Most travellers are at low risk.

Prevention

All travellers should take care with personal, food and water hygiene.

Cholera vaccination

This oral vaccine is recommended for those whose activities or medical history put them at increased risk. This includes:

  • aid workers.
  • those going to areas of cholera outbreaks who have limited access to safe water and medical care.
  • those for whom vaccination is considered potentially beneficial.

Cholera in brief

Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is a viral infection; it is transmitted by exposure to infected blood or body fluids. This mostly occurs during sexual contact or as a result of blood-to-blood contact (for example from contaminated equipment during medical and dental procedures, tattooing or body piercing procedures, and sharing of intravenous needles). Mothers with the virus can also transmit the infection to their baby during childbirth.

Hepatitis B in Nigeria

2% or more of the population are known or thought to be persistently infected with the hepatitis B virus (intermediate/high prevalence).

Prevention

Travellers should avoid contact with blood or body fluids. This includes:

  • avoiding unprotected sexual intercourse.
  • avoiding tattooing, piercing, public shaving, and acupuncture (unless sterile equipment is used).
  • not sharing needles or other injection equipment.
  • following universal precautions if working in a medical/dental/high risk setting.

A sterile medical equipment kit may be helpful when travelling to resource poor areas.

Hepatitis B vaccination

Vaccination could be considered for all travellers, and is recommended for those whose activities or medical history put them at increased risk including:

  • those who may have unprotected sex.
  • those who may be exposed to contaminated needles through injecting drug use.
  • those who may be exposed to blood or body fluids through their work (e.g. health workers).
  • those who may be exposed to contaminated needles as a result of having medical or dental care e.g. those with pre-existing medical conditions and those travelling for medical care abroad including those intending to receive renal dialysis overseas.
  • long-stay travellers.
  • those who are participating in contact sports.
  • families adopting children from this country.

Hepatitis B in brief

Meningococcal Disease

Meningococcal disease is a bacterial infection transmitted by inhaling respiratory droplets or direct contact with respiratory secretions from an infected person. This is usually following prolonged or frequent close contact. The most common forms of meningococcal disease are meningococcal meningitis (infection of the protective lining around the brain) and septicaemia (blood poisoning).

Those at increased risk include healthcare workers, those visiting friends and relatives and long-stay travellers who have close contact with the local population.

Meningococcal disease in Nigeria

This country lies within the extended meningitis belt of sub-Saharan Africa.

Prevention

Travellers should avoid, if possible, overcrowded conditions.

Meningococcal disease vaccination

Vaccination is recommended for those whose activities or medical condition put them at increased risk including:

  • healthcare workers
  • those visiting friends and relatives
  • those who live or travel ‘rough’ such as backpackers
  • long-stay travelers who have close contact with the local population
  • those with certain rare immune system problems (complement disorders) and those who do not have a functioning spleen

For travellers at risk, the ACWY conjugate vaccines are recommended.

Meningococcal disease in brief

Rabies

Rabies is a viral infection which is usually transmitted following contact with the saliva of an infected animal most often via a bite, scratch or lick to an open wound or mucous membrane (such as on the eye, nose or mouth). Although many different animals can transmit the virus, most cases follow a bite or scratch from an infected dog. In some parts of the world, bats are an important source of infection.

Rabies symptoms can take some time to develop, but when they do, the condition is almost always fatal.

The risk of exposure is increased by certain activities and length of stay (see below). Children are at increased risk as they are less likely to avoid contact with animals and to report a bite, scratch or lick.

Rabies in Nigeria

Rabies is considered a risk and has been reported in domestic animals in this country. Bats may also carry rabies-like viruses.

Prevention
  • Travellers should avoid contact with all animals. Rabies is preventable with prompt post-exposure treatment.
  • Following a possible exposure, wounds should be thoroughly cleansed and an urgent local medical assessment sought, even if the wound appears trivial.
  • Post-exposure treatment and advice should be in accordance with national guidelines.

Rabies vaccination

A full course of pre-exposure vaccines simplifies and shortens the course of post-exposure treatment and removes the need for rabies immunoglobulin which is in short supply world-wide.

Pre-exposure vaccinations are recommended for travellers whose activities put them at increased risk including:

  • those at risk due to their work (e.g. laboratory staff working with the virus, those working with animals or health workers who may be caring for infected patients).
  • those travelling to areas where access to post-exposure treatment and medical care is limited.
  • those planning higher risk activities such as running or cycling.
  • long-stay travellers (more than one month).

Rabies in brief

Tuberculosis (TB)

TB is a bacterial infection transmitted most commonly by inhaling respiratory droplets from an infectious person. This is usually following prolonged or frequent close contact.

Tuberculosis in Nigeria

The average annual incidence of TB is greater than or equal to 40 cases per 100,000 population (further details).

Prevention

Travellers should avoid close contact with individuals known to have infectious pulmonary (lung) TB.

Those at risk during their work (such as healthcare workers) should take appropriate infection control precautions.

Tuberculosis (BCG) vaccination

According to current national guidance, BCG vaccine should be recommended for those at increased risk of developing severe disease and/or of exposure to TB infection e.g. when the average annual incidence of TB is greater than or equal to 40 cases per 100,000 population. See Public Health England’s Immunisation against infectious disease, the ‘Green Book’.

For travellers, BCG vaccine is also recommended for:

  • unvaccinated, children under 16 years of age, who are going to live for more than 3 months in this country. A tuberculin skin test is required prior to vaccination for all children from 6 years of age and may be recommended for some younger children.
  • unvaccinated, tuberculin skin test negative individuals at risk due to their work such as healthcare or laboratory workers who have direct contact with TB patients or potentially infectious clinical material and vets and abattoir workers who handle animal material, which could be infected with TB.

There are specific contraindications associated with the BCG vaccine and health professionals must be trained to administer this vaccine intradermally (just under the top layer of skin).

Following administration, no further vaccines should be administered in the same limb for 3 months.

The BCG vaccine is given once only, booster doses are not recommended.

Tuberculosis in brief

Malaria

Malaria is a serious illness caused by infection of red blood cells with a parasite called Plasmodium. The disease is transmitted by mosquitoes which predominantly feed between dusk and dawn.

Symptoms usually begin with a fever (high temperature) of 38°C (100°F) or more. Other symptoms may include feeling cold and shivery, headache, nausea, vomiting and aching muscles. Symptoms may appear between eight days and one year after the infected mosquito bite.

Prompt diagnosis and treatment is required as people with malaria can deteriorate quickly. Those at higher risk of malaria, or of severe complications from malaria, include pregnant women, infants and young children, the elderly, travellers who do not have a functioning spleen and those visiting friends and relatives.

Prevention

Travellers should follow an ABCD guide to preventing malaria:

Awareness of the risk – Risk depends on the specific location, season of travel, length of stay, activities and type of accommodation.

Bite prevention – Travellers should take mosquito bite avoidance measures.

Chemoprophylaxis – Travellers should take antimalarials (malaria prevention tablets) if appropriate for the area (see below). No antimalarials are 100% effective but taking them in combination with mosquito bite avoidance measures will give substantial protection against malaria.

Diagnosis – Travellers who develop a fever of 38°C [100°F] or higher more than one week after being in a malaria risk area, or who develop any symptoms suggestive of malaria within a year of return should seek immediate medical care. Emergency standby treatment may be considered for those going to remote areas with limited access to medical attention.

Risk Areas

  • There is a high risk of malaria in Nigeria: atovaquone/proguanil OR doxycycline OR mefloquine recommended

Recommended Antimalarials

The recommended antimalarials are listed below. If these are not suitable please seek further specialist advice.

Please note, the advice for children is different, the dose is based on body weight and some antimalarials are not suitable.

Atovoquone/Proguanil

Atovaquone 250mg/Proguanil 100mg combination preparation:

  • start one to two days before arrival in the malaria risk area
  • for adults, one tablet is taken every day, ideally at the same time of day for the duration of the time in a malaria risk area and daily for seven days after leaving the malaria risk area
  • take with a fatty meal if possible
  • for children paediatric tablets are available and the dose is based on body weight (see table below)

Doxycycline

Doxycycline 100mg:

  • start one to two days before arrival in the malaria risk area
  • adults and children over 12 years of age take 100mg daily, ideally at the same time of day for the duration of the time in a malaria risk area and daily for four weeks after leaving the malaria risk area
  • take with food if possible; avoid taking this drug just before lying down
  • not suitable for children under 12 years of age

Mefloquine

Mefloquine 250mg:

  • this drug is taken weekly, adults take one 250mg tablet each week
  • start two to three weeks before arrival in the malaria risk area and continue weekly until four weeks after leaving the malaria risk area
  • for children the dose is based on the body weight (see table below)

Resources

Other risks

There are some risks that are relevant to all travellers regardless of destination. These may for example include road traffic and other accidents, diseases transmitted by insects or ticks, diseases transmitted by contaminated food and water, sexually transmitted infections, or health issues related to the heat or cold.

Some additional risks (which may be present in all or part of this country) are mentioned below and are presented alphabetically. Select risk to expand information.

Biting insects or ticks

Insect or tick bites can cause irritation and infections of the skin at the site of a bite. They can also spread certain diseases.

Diseases in Western Africa

There is a risk of insect or tick-borne diseases in some areas of West Africa. This includes diseases such as African Trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness)African tick bite feverchikungunyaCrimean-Congo haemorrhagic feverleishmaniasisRift Valley fever and West Nile virus.

Prevention
  • All travellers should avoid insect and tick bites day and night.
  • There are no vaccinations (or medications) to prevent these diseases.

Further information about specific insect or tick-borne diseases for this country can be found, if appropriate on this page, in other sections of the country information pages and the insect and tick bite avoidance factsheet.

Dengue

Dengue is a viral infection transmitted by mosquitoes which predominantly feed between dawn and dusk. It causes a flu-like illness, which can occasionally develop into a more serious life-threatening form of the disease. Severe dengue is rare in travellers.

The mosquitoes that transmit dengue are most abundant in towns, cities and surrounding areas. All travellers to dengue areas are at risk.

Dengue in Nigeria

There is a risk of dengue in this country.

Prevention
  • All travellers should avoid mosquito bites particularly between dawn and dusk.
  • There is currently no medication or vaccination available for travellers to prevent dengue.

Dengue in brief

Influenza (seasonal)

Seasonal influenza is a viral infection of the respiratory tract and spreads easily from person to person via respiratory droplets when coughing and sneezing. Symptoms appear rapidly and include fever, muscle aches, headache, malaise (feeling unwell), cough, sore throat and a runny nose. In healthy individuals, symptoms improve without treatment within two to seven days. Severe illness is more common in those aged 65 years or over, those under 2 years of age, or those who have underlying medical conditions that increase their risk for complications of influenza.

Seasonal influenza in Nigeria

Seasonal influenza occurs throughout the world. In the northern hemisphere (including the UK), most influenza occurs from as early as October through to March. In the southern hemisphere, influenza mostly occurs between April and September. In the tropics, influenza can occur throughout the year.

Prevention

All travellers should:

  • Avoid close contact with symptomatic individuals
  • Avoid crowded conditions where possible
  • Wash their hands frequently
  • Practise ‘cough hygiene’: sneezing or coughing into a tissue and promptly discarding it safely, and washing their hands
  • Avoid travel if unwell with influenza-like symptoms
  • A vaccine is available in certain circumstances (see below)*

*In the UK, seasonal influenza vaccine is offered routinely each year to those at higher risk of developing of severe disease following influenza infection, and certain additional groups such as healthcare workers and children as part of the UK national schedule (see information on vaccination). For those who do not fall into these groups, vaccination may be available privately.

If individuals at higher risk of severe disease following influenza infection are travelling to a country when influenza is likely to be circulating they should ensure they received a flu vaccination in the previous 12 months.

The vaccine used in the UK protects against the strains predicted to occur during the winter months of the northern hemisphere. It is not possible to obtain vaccine for the southern hemisphere in the UK, but the vaccine used during the UK influenza season should still provide important protection against strains likely to occur during the southern hemisphere influenza season, and in the tropics.

Avian influenza

Avian influenza viruses can rarely infect and cause disease in humans. Such cases are usually associated with close exposure to infected bird or animal populations. Where appropriate, information on these will be available in the outbreaks and news sections of the relevant country pages. Seasonal influenza vaccines will not provide protection against avian influenza.

Avian influenza in brief

Outdoor air quality

Poor air quality is a significant public health problem in many parts of the world. Exposure to high levels of air pollution over short time periods (e.g. minutes/hours/days) and longer time periods (e.g. years) is linked to many different acute and chronic health problems. These effects are mainly on the respiratory (lungs and airways) and cardiovascular (heart function and blood circulation) systems.

Current information on world air quality is available from the world air quality index project.

Prevention

Travellers with health problems that might make them more vulnerable to the effects of air pollution who are travelling to areas of high pollution should:

  • discuss their travel plans with their doctor, and carry adequate supplies of their regular medication
  • take sensible precautions to minimise their exposure to high levels of air pollution
  • check local air quality data and amend their activities accordingly
  • take notice of any health advisories published by the local Ministry of Health and Department for Environment, and follow the guidance provided.

It is unclear if face masks are beneficial at reducing exposure and may make breathing more difficult for those with pre-existing lung conditions. Those who choose to use one should make sure that the mask fits well and know how to wear it properly.

Outdoor air quality in brief

Schistosomiasis

Schistosomiasis is a parasitic infection. Schistosoma larvae are released from infected freshwater snails and can penetrate intact human skin following contact with contaminated freshwater. Travellers may be exposed during activities such as wading, swimming, bathing or washing clothes in freshwater streams, rivers or lakes.

Schistosomiasis infection may cause no symptoms, but early symptoms can include a rash and itchy skin (‘swimmer’s itch’), fever, chills, cough, or muscle aches. If not treated, it can cause serious long term health problems such as intestinal or bladder disease.

Schistosomiasis in Nigeria

According to World Health Organization (WHO), cases of schistosomiasis were reported in this country in 2012.

Prevention
  • There is no vaccine or tablets to prevent schistosomiasis.
  • All travellers should avoid wading, swimming, or bathing in freshwater where possible. Swimming in chlorinated water or sea water is not a risk for schistosomiasis.
  • Topical application of insect repellent before exposure to water, or towel drying after accidental exposure to schistosomiasis are not reliable in preventing infection.
  • All travellers who may have been exposed to schistosomiasis should have a medical assessment.

Schistosomiasis in brief

Zika Virus

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a viral infection transmitted by mosquitoes which predominantly feed between dawn and dusk. A small number of cases of sexual transmission of ZIKV have also been reported. Most people infected with ZIKV have no symptoms. When symptoms do occur they are usually mild and short-lived. Serious complications and deaths are not common. However, ZIKV is a cause of Congenital Zika Syndrome (microcephaly and other congenital anomalies) and neurological complications such as Guillain-Barré syndrome.

Zika virus in Nigeria

There is a risk of ZIKV in this country. Details of specific affected areas within this country are not available. Pregnant women should consider avoiding travel to this country until after the pregnancy. In the event that travel is unavoidable, the pregnant traveller must be informed of the risks which ZIKV presents.

Prevention
  • All travellers should avoid mosquito bites particularly between dawn and dusk.
  • There is no vaccination or medication to prevent ZIKV infection.
  • Women should avoid becoming pregnant while travelling in this country, and for 2 months (8 weeks) after their last possible ZIKV exposure* (see below if male partner has travelled).
  • If a woman develops symptoms compatible with ZIKV infection, it is recommended she avoids becoming pregnant for a further 2 months following recovery.
  • Pregnant women who visited this country while pregnant, or who become pregnant within 2 months after their last possible ZIKV exposure*, should contact their GP, obstetrician or midwife for further advice, even if they have not been unwell.

Please note screening of returning travellers without ZIKV symptoms is not available on the NHS. Couples planning pregnancy in the very near future should consider whether they should avoid travel to a country or area with risk of ZIKV, rather than delay conception for the recommended period (see below) after travel. This particularly includes couples in assisted fertility programmes.

Prevention of sexual transmission

Couples should follow guidance on prevention of sexual transmission of ZIKV and avoid conception as follows:

  • If both partners travelled, for 3 months after last possible ZIKV exposure*
  • Male traveller only, for 3 months after last possible ZIKV exposure*
  • Female traveller only, for 2 months after last possible ZIKV exposure*

See further information for pregnant women, their partners and couples planning pregnancy.

*Last possible Zika virus exposure is defined as the later of either the date of leaving a country or area with risk for ZIKV transmission, or the date on which unprotected sexual contact with a potentially infectious partner took place.

See detailed guidance on factors to consider when assessing the risk of ZIKV.

Zika virus in brief

COVID-19

COVID-19 disease is caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV2. The main symptoms of COVID-19 are recent onset of a new continuous cough and/or a high temperature; symptoms range from mild to life-threatening. Older people and those with underlying health problems are more likely to develop severe disease. SARS-CoV2 may have originated from an unknown animal source but is mainly transmitted from human to human by respiratory droplets and direct or indirect contact with infected secretions.

COVID-19 has been reported in this country. Latest case numbers are provided by the World Health Organization. Monitor the UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office travel advice and their country specific pages for travel advisories.

Prevention

All travellers should:

  • Check the latest official travel advice for their destination and check with their airline/tour operator and travel insurer before travel.
  • Maintain good hand and personal hygiene. Wash hands regularly with soap and or an alcohol-based hand sanitiser before handling food and after being in public spaces.
  • Avoid touching eyes, nose and mouth.
  • Avoid close contact with anyone with cold or flu-like symptoms, or who appears unwell.
  • Avoid sharing personal items.
  • Keep up to date with guidance on social distancing measures. Local strict social distancing measures may be in place and should be observed.

To reduce the risk of passing coronavirus to others, anyone with respiratory symptoms should:

  • Cover the nose and mouth when coughing and sneezing with a tissue or flexed elbow.
  • Use paper tissues only once and dispose of them carefully, then wash hands with soap and water or alcohol-based hand sanitiser.
  • Clean and disinfect frequently touched objects and surfaces in the home and work environment.

Should a mask be worn (generally not recommended outside of a clinical setting), all the recommended precautions in order to minimise the risk of transmission should still be used.

Those who develop symptoms of COVID-19 must follow current national guidance; see the Public Health England stay at home guidance.

Resources

Important News

02 Apr 2020

Stranded abroad during coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic: access to medications

Advice for travellers who cannot immediately return to the UK Read more

27 Mar 2020

COVID-19 (coronavirus): general advice for travellers

Advice for travellers from the UK on travel abroad and reducing spread of respiratory viruses during the COVID-19 outbreak Read more

17 Mar 2020

COVID-19: exceptional travel advisory notice

Foreign and Commonwealth Office advises against all non-essential travel worldwide Read more

09 Jan 2020

Polio: Public Health Emergency of International Concern

An update on the polio Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) Read more

10 Oct 2019

Polio: Public Health Emergency of International Concern

An update on the polio Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) Read more

24 Sep 2019

Nigeria: yellow fever outbreak

An outbreak of yellow fever has been confirmed in several states in Nigeria Read more

15 Jul 2019

Nigeria: phase out of yellow card

Clarification from Nigeria and the World Health Organization on introduction of the electronic ‘yellow card’ Read more

10 Jul 2019

Country yellow fever certificate requirement updates

World Health Organization updates to yellow fever recommendations and requirements Read more

05 Jun 2019

Country Focus: Nigeria

Pre-travel advice for those going to Nigeria Read more

31 May 2019

Polio: Public Health Emergency of International Concern

An update on the polio Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) Read more

05 Mar 2019

Polio: Public Health Emergency of International Concern

An update on the polio Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) Read more

27 Feb 2019

Zika virus (ZIKV) update to guidance

The guidance on preventing sexual transmission of ZIKV and risk area classification has been reviewed Read more

10 Dec 2018

Polio: Public Health Emergency of International Concern

An update on the polio Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) Read more

13 Sep 2018

Monkeypox cases in UK (ex Nigeria)

Two cases of monkeypox have been diagnosed in England Read more

03 Sep 2018

Polio: Public Health Emergency of International Concern

An update on the polio Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) Read more

16 May 2018

Polio: Public Health Emergency of International Concern

An update on the polio Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) Read more

14 Mar 2018

Lassa fever on the increase in West Africa

Advice for travellers to Nigeria and the West African region Read more

21 Feb 2018

Polio: Public Health Emergency of International Concern

An update on the polio Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) Read more

29 Nov 2017

Nigeria: yellow fever outbreaks

Suspected and confirmed cases of yellow fever reported to the World Health Organization Read more

24 Nov 2017

Polio: Public Health Emergency of International Concern

An update on the polio Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) Read more

05 Sep 2017

Polio: Public Health Emergency of International Concern- update

An update on the polio Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) Read more

09 May 2017

Polio: Public Health Emergency of International Concern- update

An update on the polio Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) Read more

25 Nov 2016

Polio: Public Health Emergency of International Concern update

An update on the polio Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) Read more

15 Aug 2016

Nigeria: first cases of wild polio reported since 2014

After more than two years without wild poliovirus in Nigeria, the Government reported that two children have been paralysed by the disease in the nort Read more

07 Jul 2016

Changes to Country Information pages: polio vaccination

NaTHNaC changes polio vaccine recommendations for South Sudan following statement from WHO 9th Emergency Committee statement to reduce international s Read more

01 Dec 2015

Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV): changes to Country Information pages - polio vaccination

Latest on WHO temporary recommendations to prevent the international spread of cVDPV and update to country status Read more

Outbreaks

Using information collated from a variety of sources, we regularly review and update information on overseas disease outbreaks and other health issues that may affect the UK traveller.

Please note that not all cases of disease or outbreaks are reported; some diseases may only be reported if they occur outside of the usual recognised risk area or season, or they have been reported in greater than usual numbers.

Further information on the Outbreak Surveillance section.

19 Mar 2020 Nigeria

As of 14 March 2020, a total of 3,735 suspected Lassa fever cases, 906 confirmed cases and 161 deaths have now been reported in 2020. A total of 27 States have now recorded at least one confirmed Lassa fever case in 2020.

Human

Haemorrhagic fever

Updates 24

Verified

Nigerian Centre for Disease Control - Read more

28 Feb 2020 Nigeria

COVID-19 has been reported in Nigeria. Latest case numbers are provided by World Health Organization.

Human

Air-Borne

Imported

New Post

Verified

State - Read more

18 Dec 2019 Nigeria

From 1 January through 10 December 2019, a total of 4,189 suspected yellow fever cases were reported from all the 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory in Nigeria. Sixty-eight per cent (134 cases) of the total (197 cases) confirmed cases were reported from four states, including Bauchi, Katsina, Edo and Ebonyi.

Human

Vector-Borne

Updates 3

Verified

WHO - Read more

11 Dec 2019 Nigeria

Between 1 January and 23 November 2019, a total of 32 confirmed cases of monkeypox have been reported with 2 deaths.

Human

Miscellaneous

Updates 8

Verified

State - Read more

04 Dec 2019 Sokoto. Nigeria

As of 27 November 2019, H5N6 avian influenza has been confirmed in birds at a livestock market in an outbreak that began on 25 June 2019. This is the first report of H5N6 avian influenza in Africa.

Animal

Air-Borne

New Post

Verified

OIE - Read more

23 Sep 2019 Bauchi. Nigeria

An outbreak of yellow fever has been reported in residents and visitors to Alkaleri local government area in Bauchi state since 1 August 2019. Suspected and confirmed cases with a link to Bauchi have been reported in Borno, Kano, Gombe and Katsina states including 243 suspected, 10 presumptive positives, 28 confirmed cases and 34 deaths.

Human

Vector-Borne

Updates 1

Verified

State - Read more

24 May 2019 Nigeria

Since January 2019 a total of 930 suspected cases of yellow fever cases have been reported. 332 of these cases (3 presumed confirmed cases) were reported during the month of April.

Human

Vector-Borne

Updates 23

Verified

State - Read more

30 Apr 2019 Nigeria

From 1 January to 14 April 2019, a cumulative total of 20,127 cases with 50 deaths have been recorded from 621 Local Government Areas across 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory. Of 4,338 samples tested, 819 were laboratory-confirmed (IgM-positive) for measles infection. Borno and Katsina states are the most affected constituting 48.4% and 13.3% of the cumulative cases, respectively.

Human

Close association

Updates 1

Verified

WHO - Read more