COVID-19: Travel risk assessmentFactors health professionals should consider when advising those who are planning international travel during the COVID-19 pandemic
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). According to current evidence, it is primarily transmitted between people through droplets of saliva or discharge from the nose when an infected person coughs or sneezes, and direct or indirect contact with these secretions.
Some individuals who are infected with the virus will not experience any symptoms . Fever, a new continuous cough, shortness of breath, fatigue, loss of appetite, loss of, or change to, sense of smell or taste are common symptoms. Non-specific symptoms may include myalgia (muscle aches), sore throat, headache, nasal congestion, diarrhoea, nausea and vomiting .
Most people infected will experience mild to moderate illness and recover without requiring special treatment. Some individuals experience prolonged symptoms or develop long term complications .
Older people and those with underlying health problems are more likely to develop severe disease. Current evidence also shows that there is a higher risk of infection and of severe disease in Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic groups in the UK, but reasons for this are currently not clear.
COVID-19 vaccines are in use in the UK. There are ongoing clinical trials evaluating other potential new vaccines and treatments and authorisation sought with regulatory authorities [2-4]. Further information about COVID vaccines and priority groups for vaccination in the UK as advised by the Joint Committee of Vaccination and Immunisation is available.
Risk assessment prior to travel
A comprehensive risk assessment should be undertaken for any person who is travelling. Consider all travel related risks, prevention advice and provisions for the traveller, such as insect bite avoidance, immunisations, and malaria prophylaxis. Information to help with a risk assessment can be found on each Country Information page.
The following information aims to help health professionals to assess and communicate the potential risks associated with COVID-19 infection and allow the traveller to make as informed a decision as possible regarding their travel plans.
It is particularly important that travellers always check the latest travel advice from the Foreign, Commonwealth & Development Office and any other national guidelines or travel restrictions prior to booking travel, as well as prior to departure.
Travellers should be aware of travel advice, government, and public health recommendations for the UK, any transit countries, and all destination countries. Advice may change quickly, and therefore travellers should stay up to date before, and during travel.
General considerations for all travellers include to :
- check the latest general guidance from the Foreign, Commonwealth & Development Office for UK travellers.
- check the latest FCDO country-specific travel advice regularly.
- ensure appropriate travel insurance.
- be prepared to follow the advice of local authorities abroad. Be ready to comply with local isolation, social distancing, or quarantine requirements, and to rely on the local health system.
- make sure you have enough medication with you in case you are abroad longer than planned.
- be prepared for logistical and financial disruption to your travel.
- arrange extra support for family members, dependants or pets who may need care if you are abroad longer than planned.
- ensure that you can access all recommended travel services including vaccines and malaria prophylaxis (if required).
All individuals, but particularly those who are clinically vulnerable or extremely vulnerable to severe COVID-19 disease, need to consider current UK recommendations to reduce their risk of infection. This may mean considering postponing travel particularly if the individual is considered clinically extremely vulnerable.
All those who do decide to travel, and particularly those who are vulnerable to severe illness from COVID-19, should ensure prior to travel:
- they have adequate insurance coverage, reading details carefully. A specialist policy may be required.
- they have a good supply of any regular medications.
- they have considered the availability and capacity of local health services if they do become unwell.
Travellers at higher risk of developing serious illness include those who are:
- considered to be clinically vulnerable or extremely vulnerable.
- in Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) groups.
- pregnant (there is currently no evidence that pregnant women are more likely to get seriously ill from coronavirus but pregnant women have been included in the list of people who are clinically vulnerable, as a precaution) .
General travel advice for special risk travellers is available from a number of our factsheets listed here.
Regardless of medical conditions, those aged 70 or older are clinically vulnerable to severe illness from COVID-19 .
Those falling into this age category should check the latest NHS guidance before considering travel. Remember older travellers should also consider other important risks and prevention measures before booking any travel.
Individuals aged 50 years and older will be in the priority groups for COVID-19 vaccination in the UK .
Travellers considered to be clinically vulnerable or extremely vulnerable
Some underlying health conditions put individuals at increased risk of severe COVID-19 disease. Those who are considered clinically vulnerable include those with the following conditions :
- chronic (long-term) mild to moderate respiratory diseases, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), emphysema or bronchitis.
- chronic heart disease, such as heart failure.
- chronic kidney disease.
- chronic liver disease, such as hepatitis.
- chronic neurological conditions, such as Parkinson’s disease, motor neurone disease, multiple sclerosis (MS), or cerebral palsy.
- a weakened immune system as the result of conditions such as HIV and AIDS, or medicines such as steroid tablets.
- being seriously overweight (a body mass index (BMI) of 40 or above).
- pregnant women (see below).
Public Health England’s Immunisation against infectious disease, also lists the following clinical risk groups for those 16 years of age and over :
- those with absent or dysfunctional spleen (including conditions that may lead to splenic dysfunction).
- those with severe mental illness such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or illness that causes severe functional impairment.
Other individuals listed in the priority group for vaccination including carers, and adults in long stay nursing or residential care settings.
Those who are clinically extremely vulnerable include :
- Solid organ transplant recipients.
- People with specific cancers:
- people with cancer who are undergoing active chemotherapy.
- people with lung cancer who are undergoing radical radiotherapy.
- people with cancers of the blood or bone marrow such as leukaemia, lymphoma or myeloma who are at any stage of treatment.
- people having immunotherapy or other continuing antibody treatments for cancer.
- people having other targeted cancer treatments which can affect the immune system, such as protein kinase inhibitors or PARP inhibitors.
- people who have had bone marrow or stem cell transplants in the last 6 months, or who are still taking immunosuppression drugs.
Those who are clinically vulnerable to severe disease from COVID-19 should follow current UK advice. If travel is considered essential, follow the general travel advice carefully to minimise risk of COVID-19.
Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) groups
The current evidence is that there is a higher risk of infection and of severe disease in BAME groups in the UK. The reasons for this, and how this is affected by other factors such as environment, occupation, medical conditions, or obesity is unclear. However, consideration should be given to how a travellers ethnicity may increase the risk of severe disease when undertaking a risk assessment.
All pregnant women are considered to be clinically vulnerable to severe illness from COVID-19. Pregnant women with a serious heart condition are considered to be clinically extremely vulnerable (alongside anyone that has a condition that would place them in the high risk category, irrespective of pregnancy) .
Women who are more than 28 weeks pregnant are advised it is especially important to follow the current coronavirus-related pregnancy NHS advice.
More detailed information on pregnancy and coronavirus is available from the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
All pregnant women who are considering travelling should check the latest NHS guidance on what measures are currently recommended to reduce the risk of COVID-19. If they do decide to travel they should also consider other important risks and prevention measures necessary when travelling before booking any travel.
Destination related factors
Each country is classified as high, moderate or low risk of exposure to COVID-19 based on currently available information assessed by Public Health England and the National Travel Health Network and Centre.
- HIGH – All travellers are advised to avoid non-essential travel to some of these countries/areas (see individual Country Information pages). Travellers should discuss their plans with a health professional, this is particularly important for those in the clinically extremely vulnerable groups at increased risk of severe COVID-19. Individuals entering or returning to the UK from these countries/areas may be required to follow additional UK border measures which may include self-isolation.
- MODERATE – Travellers should carefully consider the risks of exposure to COVID-19 before travel to these countries/areas. This is particularly important for those in the clinically extremely vulnerable groups who may wish to seek advice before travel. Travellers returning to the UK may be required to follow additional UK border measures including self-isolation.
- LOW – There are no additional health advisories for these countries/areas, but travellers should be aware of the potential risks and changes in COVID-19 disease patterns. On return to the UK travellers may be required to follow additional UK border measures including self-isolation.
The current category for each country/area can be found on the Country Information page.
There are also a number of official sources of information on in-country COVID-19 case numbers and fatalities (often reported in both daily and total figures over weeks/months). Those reporting comprehensive global figures include:
- World Health Organization (WHO)
- Johns Hopkins University
- European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC)
- Imperial College London– note these are short-term forecasts and transmissibility estimates
When considering the risk of COVID-19 infection at any planned destination, the following should also be considered:
Affected areas in a country
- The risk of COVID-19 may vary within a country. Where specific information exists, this may be provided in our Country Information pages. Alternatively, it may be possible to search for national figures on the destination’s Department of Health or Ministry of Health website.
- In many cases, it will not be possible to identify specific risk areas within a country. In these situations, the degree of risk will be assumed to be uniform in the whole country depending on what information is available.
It is important to be aware that countries will vary in terms of capacity and methods for surveillance, testing, and reporting of COVID-19 cases and deaths. This can affect the numbers of cases and fatalities being published, and therefore may not be a real-time reflection of ongoing COVID-19 transmission and risk.
As population numbers also vary greatly between countries, so absolute numbers of COVID-19 cases may be hard to interpret in terms of the level of virus transmission.A category for the risk of exposure to COVID-19 (high, moderate or low risk) is available on each of our Country Information pages. These settings are based on currently available information assessed by Public Health England and the National Travel Health Network and Centre. This is separate to guidance on border measures and self-isolation requirements on travel to the UK which is available on the GOV.UK website.
Travellers can reduce their chances of being infected or spreading COVID-19 by taking some simple precautions:
- Maintain a 2 metre (6 feet) distance between themselves and others. If this is not possible, take additional precautions.
- Avoid going to crowded places.
- Stay in accommodation and self-isolate if symptoms develop such as a new continuous cough, fever, or loss of, or change to, sense of smell or taste, arrange to have a test following local guidelines (see stay at home guidelines from Public Health England as an example). Have someone bring any essential supplies.
- Travellers should seek medical attention by telephone if concerned and follow the directions of the local health authority.
- Face coverings should be used as recommended (they may also be a requirement at the destination). Travellers should continue to use all the recommended precautions such as handwashing and social distancing in order to minimise the risk of transmission.
Handwashing and respiratory hygiene
There are general principles travellers can follow to help prevent the spread of respiratory viruses, including :
- washing your hands more often - with soap and water for at least 20 seconds or use a hand sanitiser when you get back to your accommodation, when you blow your nose, sneeze or cough, eat or handle food.
- avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth with unwashed hands.
- avoid close contact with people who have symptoms.
- cover your cough or sneeze with a tissue, then throw the tissue in a bin and wash your hands.
- clean and disinfect frequently touched objects and surfaces in your accommodation.
- Public Health England. COVID-19: epidemiology, virology and clinical features, 11 December 2020. [Accessed 17 December 2020]
- European Medicines Agency, Treatments and vaccines for COVID-19, [Accessed 17 December 2020]
- World Health Organization, COVID-19 vaccines [Accessed 17 December 2020]
- Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency [Accessed 17 December 2020]
- Foreign, Commonwealth & Development Office. Travel advice: coronavirus (COVID-19) [Accessed 17 December 2020]
- NHS Who’s at higher risk from coronavirus, [Accessed 17 December 2020]
- Public Health England, COVID-19 chapter 14a, Immunisation against infectious disease. 11 December 2020 [Accessed 17 December 2020]
- GOV.UK. Guidance on shielding and protecting people who are clinically extremely vulnerable from COVID-19, updated 14 December 2020 [Accessed 17 December 2020]
- Public Health England. Coronavirus (COVID-19) guidance. [Accessed 17 December 2020]
First Published : 18 Jun 2020
Last Updated :  17 Dec 2020