22 May 2019
Worldwide rabies risk reminderA reminder for travellers of the worldwide risk of rabies
Human rabies is present in more than 150 countries and territories on all continents, apart from Antarctica .
Tens of thousands of people die each year from rabies, mainly in Asia and Africa, with over 95% of human deaths occurring in these two continents [1, 2]. Of those bitten by suspect rabid animals, 40% are children under 15 years of age. While rabies can spread to humans in saliva from any infected domestic or wild animal, the World Health Organization estimates that dogs are the main source of human rabies deaths, causing up to 99% of all human rabies transmissions .
Advice for travellers
Rabies is spread by contact with saliva from any rabies-infected wild animal (including bats) or domestic animal/pet by a bite, scratch or a lick to an open wound. It is usually fatal, once symptoms are present.
A course of rabies vaccine can prevent infection and death. Guidance on when protection should be started prior to travel is available on our Country Information pages but further management is still needed after all potential exposures .
Rabies risk increases with long trips and activities such as cycling or running. Certain jobs: vets working overseas, animal control, conservation, wildlife work or volunteering in animal sanctuaries may be very high risk.
Children are at particular risk, as they are most likely to touch animals and may not report being bitten, scratched or licked, if they are very young or are worried about getting into trouble.
Check our Country Information pages vaccine recommendations to see if rabies is present in bats, wild animals and/or domestic animals at your destination.
Consider a pre-exposure rabies vaccine course. This is especially important if you are travelling to a high risk country and/or visiting remote areas, where medical care and rabies post-exposure treatment may not be available.
Avoid contact with any wild and domestic animals/pets:
- Do not approach any animals
- Do not pick up ill or unusually tame animals
- Do not attract stray animals by being careless with litter or offering food
- Remember activities like cycling or running often attract dogs
If you are bitten or scratched by an animal or if an animal licks open skin, you must immediately flush the wound/area under a running tap for several minutes, then thoroughly wash with soap/detergent and water to remove saliva. Apply a disinfectant like 70% alcohol or iodine solution and cover wound with a simple dressing. If you have an animal saliva exposure (usually spitting) to your mucous membranes such as eyes, nose or mouth, wash thoroughly with clean water as soon as possible .
Get urgent medical help, even if the wound or incident seems very trivial. Prompt post-exposure treatment is needed, even if you have already had a full pre-exposure vaccine course, as further vaccine doses are needed. If you had rabies vaccination before you travelled, make sure you carry your vaccine record with you.
If you did not have or did not complete a rabies vaccine course before travel, you may need treatment with a blood product called rabies immunoglobulin, as well as a full vaccine course.
In some world regions, both rabies immunoglobulin and vaccines may be unavailable. However, getting rabies vaccine (a different product to immunoglobulin) is critical in post- exposure treatment and should be started as soon as possible, whether or not immunoglobulin is available. You may need an emergency flight back to the UK or a nearby country for appropriate treatment and vaccines.
Ask for a written record of any post exposure treatment you receive overseas. If you do not feel comfortable with the medical advice you receive overseas, contact your medical insurance company.
If you had any potential exposure, however minor, get immediate medical advice on your return to the UK. This is important, even if your received post-exposure treatment abroad and the bite/exposure was weeks before, as you may need a rabies vaccine course in the UK. If you have a record of any treatment given abroad, remember to bring this with you.
Advice for health professionals
Health professionals advising travellers can check our Country Information pages to check rabies risk and vaccine recommendations at specific destinations
All travellers to countries where rabies is known or presumed to occur should be advised of the importance of first aid and of seeking urgent reputable medical attention if they are bitten, scratched or licked by any mammal. This advice is important for all travellers, whether or not pre-exposure vaccine was given.
Expert advice and guidance for health professionals on assessing risk following rabies exposure including post-exposure treatment and public health management of a suspected rabies case in:
England - Public Health England (PHE) Rabies and Immunoglobulin Service on 030 0555 0119, or find the local health protection team.
Wales - Duty Virologist, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff: 029 20 742 094 or 029 20 747 747 or Public Health Wales Health Protection Team on 0300 003 0032 (contact via the local ambulance control out of hours).
Northern Ireland - Public Health Agency Duty Room: 0300 5550119. Rabies vaccine is available from the Royal Victoria Hospital Pharmacy Department, Belfast -028 9024 0503.
Scotland - Local on-call infectious diseases consultant:
Aberdeen, Royal Infirmary - 0345 456 6000
Ayrshire, Crosshouse Hospital, - 01563 521 133
Dumfries and Galloway - Royal Infirmary - 01387 246 246
Dundee, Ninewells Hospital, - 01382 680 111
Edinburgh, Western General Hospital - 0131 537 1000
Fife, Victoria Hospital - 01592 643 355
Glasgow, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, - 0141 201 1100
Inverness, Raigmore Hospital - 01463 704 000
Lanarkshire, Monklands Hospital, - 01236 748 748
- World Health Organization. Rabies Factsheet. 23 September 2018. [Accessed 22 May 2018]
- World Organisation for Animal Health. What is rabies? 2019. [Accessed 22 May 2019]
- Public Health England: Rabies - the green book, chapter 27. Rabies immunisation information for public health professionals, including updates. Last updated 10 July 2018. [Accessed 22 May 2019]