08 Jul 2015

Yellow fever: Peru

Since the start of 2015, a small number of cases of of jungle (sylvatic) yellow fever have been reported Yellow fever: Peru

As of 23 June 2015, the Ministry of Health, Peru has confirmed a number of cases of jungle (sylvatic) yellow fever (YF).  Since the start of 2015, a small number of cases have been reported from the departments of Cusco, Huánuco, Junín, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin and Ucayali [1]. All the cases to date are reported from departments that are known risk areas for YF.   Further information is available from the Ministry of Health, Peru.

In the Americas, the YF virus is usually transmitted in jungle areas via the bite of the Haemagogus spp. mosquito which is thought to bite predominantly during the day [2]. The Aedes aegypti mosquito, also prevalent in the Americas, favours an urban environment and can also transmit YF. Urban areas are at risk of introduction of YF due to human traffic between jungle and urban locations. A. aegypti feeds predominantly during daylight hours.

In South and Central America, 13 countries are considered endemic for YF. These are listed by the World Health Organization (WHO) as countries with risk of YF transmission.

Advice for travellers

YF is transmitted to humans via the bite of an infected mosquito. You should take insect bite avoidance measures, day and night, when visiting countries with a risk of any disease transmitted by insects.

If you are travelling to or through areas of Peru or other countries in the Americas with risk of YF, vaccination is recommended for your personal protection.

Full details of YF vaccination recommendations can be found on the Country Information pages. Some travellers may require vaccination for certificate purposes.  Details of the countries that require proof of YF vaccination as a condition of entry under the International Health Regulations (2005) are also provided.

Advice for health professionals

When undertaking YF risk assessment, health professionals should refer to the individual Country Information pages where detail relating to risk areas, recommendation for YF vaccination and certificate requirements are available.

A map of the current areas where YF vaccine is recommended in the Americas has been produced by the WHO. This provides a useful guide for the consultation, and health professionals are also encouraged to access the Outbreak Surveillance Database, where verified and some unverified outbreaks of YF are posted.

Under International Health Regulations (2005), countries are no longer required to automatically report YF outbreaks to the WHO; surveillance and reporting of YF in YF risk countries can be poor.

Full details of YF vaccination recommendations can be found on the Country Information pages. Some travellers may require vaccination for certificate purposes.  Details of the countries that require proof of YF vaccination as a condition of entry under the International Health Regulations (2005) are also provided.

Resources

1. Ministerio De Salud. Perú. Directión General de Epidemiogia. Boletín Epidemiólogico 2015. [Accessed 8 July 2015]

2. Service M. Medical Entomology for Students. 5th ed. New York. Cambridge University Press; 2012

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