Although rare, bat lyssaviruses (bat rabies) can be transmitted to humans or other animals following contact with the saliva of an infected bat most often by a bite. The disease can also be transmitted if the saliva of an infected bat gets into open wounds or mucous membranes (such as on the eye, nose or mouth). Bat lyssaviruses can cause disease in humans that is indistinguishable from rabies.
Symptoms can take some time to develop, but when they do the condition is almost always fatal.
The risk to most travellers is low. However, it is increased for certain occupations for example bat handlers and veterinarians, or certain activities such as caving.
Bat Lyssavirus in Liechtenstein
Rabies has not been reported in domestic or wild animals in this country; therefore most travellers are considered to be at low risk. However, bats may carry bat lyssavirus (bat rabies).
- Travellers should avoid contact with bats. Bites from bats are frequently unrecognised. Rabies-like disease caused by bat lyssaviruses is preventable with prompt post-exposure rabies treatment.
- Following a possible exposure, wounds should be thoroughly cleansed and an urgent local medical assessment sought, even if the wound appears trivial. Although rabies has not been reported in other animals in this country, it is sensible to seek prompt medical advice if bitten or scratched. It is possible, although very rare for bats to pass rabies like viruses to other animals including pets.
- Post-exposure treatment and advice should be in accordance with national guidelines.
- Pre-exposure rabies vaccinations are recommended for those who are at increased risk due to their work (e.g. laboratory staff working with the virus and those working with bats).
- Pre exposure vaccines could be considered for those whose activities put them at increased risk of exposure to bats.
A full course of pre-exposure vaccines simplifies and shortens the course of post-exposure treatment and removes the need for rabies immunoglobulin which is in short supply world-wide.
Rabies in brief
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a viral infection transmitted by the bite of infected ticks. Less commonly, cases of TBE occur following ingestion of unpasteurised milk products.
Travellers are at increased risk of exposure during outdoor activities in areas of vegetation (gardens, parks, meadows, forest fringes and glades). Ticks are usually most active between early spring and late autumn.
Tick-borne encephalitis in Liechtenstein
There is a risk of TBE in all areas of this country. The transmission season varies, however, ticks are most active during early spring to late autumn.
- All travellers should avoid tick bites during outdoor activities.
- Travellers should check their skin regularly for ticks and remove them as soon as possible with a recommended technique.
- Travellers should not eat or drink unpasteurised milk products.
Tick-borne encephalitis vaccination
Vaccination is recommended for those visiting affected areas whose activities put them at increased risk including:
- Those who will be going to live in TBE risk areas
- Those working in forestry, woodcutting, farming and the military
- Travellers to forested areas, e.g. campers, hikers, hunters and individuals who undertake fieldwork
- Laboratory workers who may be exposed to TBE
Tick-borne encephalitis in brief