The information on these pages should be used to research health risks and to inform the pre-travel consultation.
Travellers should ideally arrange an appointment with their health professional at least four to six weeks before travel. However, even if time is short, an appointment is still worthwhile. This appointment provides an opportunity to assess health risks taking into account a number of factors including destination, medical history, and planned activities. For those with pre-existing health problems, an earlier appointment is recommended.
While most travellers have a healthy and safe trip, there are some risks that are relevant to travellers regardless of destination. These may for example include road traffic and other accidents, diseases transmitted by insects or ticks, diseases transmitted by contaminated food and water, sexually transmitted infections, or health issues related to the heat or cold.
All travellers should ensure they have adequate travel health insurance.
A list of useful resources including advice on how to reduce the risk of certain health problems is available below.
Details of vaccination recommendations and requirements are provided below.
Travellers should be up to date with routine vaccination courses and boosters as recommended in the UK. These vaccinations include for example measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine and diphtheria-tetanus-polio vaccine.
Those who may be at increased risk of an infectious disease due to their work, lifestyle choice, or certain underlying health problems should be up to date with additional recommended vaccines. See the individual chapters of the ‘Green Book’ Immunisation against infectious disease for further details.
There are no certificate requirements under International Health Regulations.
The vaccines in this section are recommended for most travellers visiting this country. Information on these vaccines can be found by clicking on the blue arrow. Vaccines are listed alphabetically.
Tetanus is caused by a toxin released from Clostridium tetani and occurs worldwide. Tetanus bacteria are present in soil and manure and may be introduced through open wounds such as a puncture wound, burn or scratch.
Travellers should thoroughly clean all wounds and seek appropriate medical attention.
The vaccines in this section are recommended for some travellers visiting this country. Information on when these vaccines should be considered can be found by clicking on the arrow. Vaccines are listed alphabetically.
Rabies (Bat Lyssavirus)
Although rare, bat lyssaviruses (bat rabies) can be transmitted to humans or other animals following contact with the saliva of an infected bat most often by a bite. The disease can also be transmitted if the saliva of an infected bat gets into open wounds or mucous membranes (such as on the eye, nose or mouth). Bat lyssaviruses can cause disease in humans that is indistinguishable from rabies.
Symptoms can take some time to develop, but when they do the condition is almost always fatal.
The risk to most travellers is low. However, it is increased for certain occupations for example bat handlers and veterinarians, or certain activities such as caving.
Rabies has not been reported in domestic or wild animals in this country; therefore most travellers are considered to be at low risk. However, bats may carry bat lyssavirus (bat rabies).
A full course of pre-exposure vaccines simplifies and shortens the course of post-exposure treatment and removes the need for rabies immunoglobulin which is in short supply world-wide.
There are some risks that are relevant to all travellers regardless of destination. These may for example include road traffic and other accidents, diseases transmitted by insects or ticks, diseases transmitted by contaminated food and water, sexually transmitted infections, or health issues related to the heat or cold. Some additional risks (which may be present in all or part of this country) are mentioned below.
Insect or tick bites can cause irritation and infections of the skin at the site of a bite.
In some areas of Western Europe certain insects or ticks may be present.
Further information about specific insect or tick borne diseases for this country can be found, if appropriate on this page, in other sections of the country information pages and the insect and tick bite avoidance factsheet.
17 Aug 2015
Cases of meningococcal meningitis reported in scouts recently returned from the 23rd World Scout Jamboree in Japan Read more
12 Nov 2018
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In November 2018, a UK resident died after becoming infected with rabies following a cat bite during a visit to Morocco.
10 Sep 2018
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On 8 September 2018, Public Health England reported a case of Monkeybox. The patient is a resident of Nigeria, where they are believed to have contracted the infection, before travelling to the UK. The patient stayed at a naval base in Cornwall prior to transfer to the Royal Free Hospital, where they are receiving treatment.
23 Mar 2018
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As of 22 March 2018, a food-borne outbreak with 32 cases and six deaths in Austria, Denmark, Finland, Sweden, and the United Kingdom between 2015 and 8 March 2018 has been reported. The most likely source is frozen corn products produced and processed in Hungary and packed in Poland. Market withdrawals are under way.
22 Jan 2018
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Bosnia and Herzegovina
Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast)
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Hong Kong (China)
United Arab Emirates
As of 19 January 2018, European Commission has updated the the list of countries affected by product withdrawal of infant powder milk products: Afghanistan, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Armenia, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belgium, Benin, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Chad, China, Colombia, Comoros, Republic of Congo, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, France, Gabon, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Guinea, Haiti, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Kosovo, Kuwait, Lebanon, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Monaco, Morocco, Netherlands, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Rwanda, Saint Martin, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Switzerland, Syria, Taiwan, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, and FYR Macedonia.