General information

The information on these pages should be used to research health risks and to inform the pre-travel consultation. For advice regarding safety and security please check the UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) website.

Travellers should ideally arrange an appointment with their health professional at least four to six weeks before travel. However, even if time is short, an appointment is still worthwhile. This appointment provides an opportunity to assess health risks taking into account a number of factors including destination, medical history, and planned activities. For those with pre-existing health problems, an earlier appointment is recommended.

All travellers should ensure they have adequate travel health insurance. If visiting European Economic Area (EEA) countries carry an European health insurance card (EHIC) as this will allow access to state-provided healthcare in EEA countries, at a reduced cost, or sometimes for free. The EHIC, however, is not an alternative to travel insurance.

A list of useful resources including advice on how to reduce the risk of certain health problems is available below.

Resources

Vaccine recommendations

Details of vaccination recommendations and requirements are provided below.

All Travellers

Travellers should be up to date with routine vaccination courses and boosters as recommended in the UK. These vaccinations include for example measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine and diphtheria-tetanus-polio vaccine.

Country specific diphtheria recommendations are not provided here. Diphtheria tetanus and polio are combined in a single vaccine in the UK. Therefore, when a tetanus booster is recommended for travellers, diphtheria vaccine is also given. Should there be an outbreak of diphtheria in a country, diphtheria vaccination guidance will be provided.

Those who may be at increased risk of an infectious disease due to their work, lifestyle choice, or certain underlying health problems should be up to date with additional recommended vaccines. See the individual chapters of the ‘Green Book’ Immunisation against infectious disease for further details.

Certificate Requirements

There are no certificate requirements under International Health Regulations.

Most Travellers

The vaccines in this section are recommended for most travellers visiting this country. Information on these vaccines can be found by clicking on the blue arrow. Vaccines are listed alphabetically.

Tetanus

Tetanus is caused by a toxin released from Clostridium tetani and occurs worldwide.  Tetanus bacteria are present in soil and manure and may be introduced through open wounds such as a puncture wound, burn or scratch.

Prevention
Travellers should thoroughly clean all wounds and seek appropriate medical attention.

Tetanus vaccination
  • Travellers should have completed a primary vaccination course according to the UK schedule.
  • If travelling to a country where medical facilities may be limited, a booster dose of a tetanus-containing vaccine is recommended if the last dose was more than ten years ago even if five doses of vaccine have been given previously.

Country specific information on medical facilities may be found in the ‘health’ section of the FCO foreign travel advice website.

 Tetanus in brief

Some Travellers

The vaccines in this section are recommended for some travellers visiting this country. Information on when these vaccines should be considered can be found by clicking on the arrow. Vaccines are listed alphabetically.

Rabies (Bat Lyssavirus)

Although rare, bat lyssaviruses (bat rabies) can be transmitted to humans or other animals following contact with the saliva of an infected bat most often by a bite. The disease can also be transmitted if the saliva of an infected bat gets into open wounds or mucous membranes (such as on the eye, nose or mouth). Bat lyssaviruses can cause disease in humans that is indistinguishable from rabies.

Symptoms can take some time to develop, but when they do the condition is almost always fatal.

The risk to most travellers is low. However, it is increased for certain occupations for example bat handlers and veterinarians, or certain activities such as caving.

Bat Lyssavirus in Denmark

Rabies has not been reported in this country; therefore most travellers are considered to be at low risk. However, bats may carry bat lyssavirus (bat rabies).

Prevention
  • Travellers should avoid contact with bats. Bites from bats are frequently unrecognised. Rabies-like disease caused by bat lyssaviruses is preventable with prompt post-exposure rabies treatment.
  • Following a possible exposure, wounds should be thoroughly cleansed and an urgent local medical assessment sought, even if the wound appears trivial. Although rabies has not been reported in other animals in this country, it is sensible to seek prompt medical advice if bitten or scratched. It is possible, although very rare for bats to pass rabies like viruses to other animals including pets.
  • Post-exposure treatment and advice should be in accordance with national guidelines.


Rabies vaccination
A full course of pre-exposure vaccines simplifies and shortens the course of post-exposure treatment and removes the need for rabies immunoglobulin which is in short supply world-wide.

  • Pre-exposure rabies vaccinations are recommended for those who are at increased risk due to their work (e.g. laboratory staff working with the virus and those working with bats).
  • Pre exposure vaccines could be considered for those whose activities put them at increased risk of exposure to bats.

 Rabies in brief

Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE)

Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a viral infection transmitted by the bite of infected ticks. Less commonly, cases of TBE occur following ingestion of unpasteurised milk products.

Travellers are at increased risk of exposure during outdoor activities in areas of vegetation (gardens, parks, meadows, forest fringes and glades). Ticks are usually most active between early spring and late autumn.

Tick-borne encephalitis in Denmark

There is a risk of TBE in some areas of this country. The main affected areas are the Baltic island of Bornholm and Tokkekøb Hegn, a forest area north of Copenhagen. The transmission season varies, however, ticks are most active during early spring to late autumn.

Prevention
  • All travellers should avoid tick bites during outdoor activities.
  • Travellers should check their skin regularly for ticks and remove them as soon as possible with a recommended technique.
  • Travellers should not eat or drink unpasteurised milk products.
Tick-borne encephalitis vaccination

Vaccination is recommended for those visiting affected areas whose activities put them at increased risk including:

  • Those who will be going to live in TBE risk areas
  • Those working in forestry, woodcutting, farming and the military
  • Travellers to forested areas, e.g. campers, hikers, hunters and individuals who undertake fieldwork
  • Laboratory workers who may be exposed to TBE

Tick-borne encephalitis in brief

Other risks

There are some risks that are relevant to all travellers regardless of destination. These may for example include road traffic and other accidents, diseases transmitted by insects or ticks, diseases transmitted by contaminated food and water, sexually transmitted infections, or health issues related to the heat or cold. Some additional risks (which may be present in all or part of this country) are mentioned below and are presented alphabetically.

Biting insects or ticks

Insects or tick bites can cause irritation and infections of the skin at the site of a bite. They can also spread certain diseases.

Diseases in Western Europe

There is a risk of insect or tick-borne diseases in some areas of Western Europe. This includes diseases such as West Nile virus.

Prevention

  • All travellers should avoid insect and tick bites day and night
  • There are no vaccinations (or medications) to prevent these disease

Further information about specific insect or tick-borne diseases for this country can be found, if appropriate on this page, in other sections of the country information pages and the insect and tick bite avoidance factsheet.

Important News

20 Dec 2017

Measles reminder

Ensure all travellers are up to date with measles vaccination Read more

06 Jul 2017

Measles in Europe

A reminder for travellers to be up to date with measles vaccine Read more

03 May 2017

Changes to the Country Information pages: Tick-borne encephalitis

NaTHNaC has reviewed and updated the tick-borne encephalitis country specific information in order to provide up-to-date recommendations for traveller Read more

06 Apr 2017

European cluster of cases of hepatitis A

Outbreaks of hepatitis A have been reported in Europe mostly affecting men who have sex with men (MSM) Read more

01 Dec 2016

Avian influenza: worldwide update

An update on human cases of avian influenza viruses worldwide Read more

Outbreaks

23 Mar 2018 View Countries + Austria
Denmark
Finland
Sweden
United Kingdom

As of 22 March 2018, a food-borne outbreak with 32 cases and six deaths in Austria, Denmark, Finland, Sweden, and the United Kingdom between 2015 and 8 March 2018 has been reported. The most likely source is frozen corn products produced and processed in Hungary and packed in Poland. Market withdrawals are under way.

Human

Food and water-borne

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ECDC - Read more

05 Mar 2018 Denmark

As of 13 February 2018, a first case of this strain for Denmark has been reported in a wild bird.

Animal

Air-Borne

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OIE - Read more

13 Feb 2018 Denmark

As of 12 February 2018, a total of 17 cases of Hepatitis A have been confirmed, linked to consumption of imported dates, with patients reporting symptoms from December 2017 onwards. Investigations support the source of infection as imported dates and the product was recalled on 6 February 2018.

Human

Food and water-borne

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State - Read more

01 Sep 2017 View Countries + Denmark
Poland

As of 31 August 2017, a cluster of four listeriosis cases with a death has been reported in Denmark in connection with the consumption of cold smoked salmon from Poland. The onset of disease for the latest cases was in August 2017. A product recall is under way in Denmark.

Human

Imported

Food and water-borne

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State - Read more